*Identification of Cellular Automata*. 19942002*Collision-Based Computing*.*Artificial Life Models in Software*. 2005, with Maciej Komosinski*Reaction-Diffusion Computers*. 2005, with Ben De Lacy Costello, Tetsuya Asai*From Utopian to Genuine Unconventional Computers*. 2006, with Christof Teuscher2007, with Lawrence Bull, Ben De Lacy Costello, Susan Stepney, Christof Teuscher*Unconventional Computing 2007*.2008, with Ramon Alonso-Sanz, Anna Lawniczak, Genaro Juarez Martinez, Kenichi Morita, Thomas Worsch*Automata 2008*.2010*Game of Life Cellular Automata*.2010*Physarum Machines*.2012*Bioevaluation of World Transport Networks*.2013*Reaction-Diffusion Automata*.*The Silence of Slime Mould*. 20152016, with Genaro Juarez Martinez*Designing Beauty*.*Advances in Unconventional Computing: Volume 1: Theory*. 2017*Advances in Unconventional Computing: Volume 2: Prototypes, Models and Algorithms*. 2017*Inspired by Nature*. 2018, with Susan Stepney

- Edges and Computation in Excitable Media. 1998. (In
)*Artificial Life VI* - Laziness + Sensitivity + Mobility = Structure: Emergence of Patterns in Lattice Swarms. 1999. (In
)*Advances in Artificial Life, ECAL'99* - Wet Artificial Brains: Towards the Chemical Control of Robot Motion by Reaction-Diffusion and Excitable Media. 1999. (In
)*Advances in Artificial Life, ECAL'99* - New Media for Collision-Based Computing. 2002. (In
)*Collision-Based Computing* - Programming Reaction-Diffusion Processors. 2005. (In
*Unconventional Programming Paradigms, UPP 2004*) - Towards machine learning control of chemical computers. 2006. (In
*From Utopian to Genuine Unconventional Computers*) - Computation with competing patterns in Life-like automata. 2010. (In
)*Game of Life Cellular Automata* - Localization dynamics in a binary two-dimensional cellular automaton: the diffusion rule. 2010. (In
)*Game of Life Cellular Automata* - Physarum Inspired Audio: From Oscillatory Sonification to Memristor Music. 2017. (In
*Guide to Unconventional Computing for Music*)

- • Tommaso Toffoli.
**Symbol Super Colliders**. 2002 - • Edward F. Fredkin, Tommaso Toffoli.
**Design Principles for Achieving High-Performance Submicron Digital Technology**. 1978 - • Edward F. Fredkin, Tommaso Toffoli.
**Conservative Logic**.*Int. J. Theor. Phys.*, 21. 1982 - • Norman H. Margolus.
**Physics-like models of computation**.*Physica*10D. 1984 - • Norman H. Margolus.
**Universal Cellular Automata based on the collisions of soft spheres**.*Constructive CA Workshop Proceedings*. 1998 - • Jerome Durand-Lose.
**Computing Inside the Billiard Ball Model**. 2002 - • Kenichi Morita, Yasayuki Tojima, Katsunobu Imai, Tsuyoshi Ogiro.
**Universal Computing in Reversible and Number-Conserving Two-Dimensional Cellular Spaces**. 2002 - • Michael D. Westmoreland, Joan Krone.
**Derivation Schemes in Twin Open Set Logic**. 2002 - • Marianne Delorme, Jacques Mazoyer.
**Signals on Cellular Automata**. 2002 - • Mariusz H. Jakubowski, Ken Steiglitz, Richard Squier.
**Computing with Solitons: a Review and Prospectus**.*Multiple-Valued Logic Journal*. 2000 - • Pawel Siwak.
**Iterons of Automata**. 2002 - • Steve Blair, Kelvin Wagner.
**Gated Logic with Optical Solitons**. 2002 - • Andrew Wuensche.
**Finding Gliders in Cellular Automata**. 2002 - glider
as a "localised propagating structure" -- example of
self-organisation • search looks at variance of input entropy over
time • measures: maps of attractor basins -- bushy sub-trees with
high in-degree => high convergence and order, sparse sub-trees =>
low convergence and chaos;
*G*density (Garden-of-Eden state density), ratio of increase of*G*density with size: order is high, chaos is low; distribution of in-degree size;*Z*parameter -- statistical predictor of convergence:*Z*=0 => order,*Z*=1 => chaos; • local measures (on trajectory), global measures (on attractor basin), static measures (*Z*) • 1D CA, binary state, neighbourhood*k*=3, can represent using state value (2 colours) or neighbourhood lookup value (8 colours); with 2nd repn, if background (commonly looked up values) is filtered, gliders can show up better (especially if transformed to equivalent rule using larger neighbourhood) • attractor basins diagrammed as state transition relations [picture], by repeatedly calculating pre-image of states • ordered rules become rarer at higher k, complex rules are rare • gliders can have a large diameter, and a large period • compound gliders formed from sub-gliders colliding periodically -- hierarchy could continue without limit • classify rules using entropy of "lookup frequency" -- order: low entropy, low variance -- complex: medium entropy, high variance -- chaos: high entropy, low variance • glider collision table: description of behaviour allowing some prediction of future evolution -- neighbourhood rule table: accounts for origin of gliders, emergence by self-organisation - •
**New Media for Collision-Based Computing**. 2002 - • Leonid A. Bunimovich, Milena A. Khlabystova.
**Lorentz Lattice Gases and Multi-Dimensional Turing Machines**. 2002 - • Enrico Petraglio, Gianluca Tempesti, Jean-Marc Henry.
**Arithmetic Operations with Self-Replicating Loops**. 2002 - • Jean-Phillipe Rennard.
**Implementation of Logical Functions on the Game of Life**. 2002 - • Paul Rendell.
**Turing Universality of the Game of Life**. 2002

- • Charles Ofria, Claus O. Wilke.
**Avida: evolution experiments with self-replicating computer programs**. 2005 - • Maciej Komosinski.
**Framstiks: a platform for modeling, simulating, and evolving 3D creatures**. 2005 - • Bruce Damer, Karen Marcelo, Frank Revi, Todd Furmanski, Chris Laurel.
**Nerve Garden: germinating biological metaphors in net-based virtual worlds**. 2005 - • Jeffrey Ventrella.
**GenePool: exploring the interaction between natural selection and sexual selection**. 2005 - • Peter W. McOwan, Edward J. Burton.
**Sodarace: adventures in artificial life**. 2005 - • Michael J. North, Charles M. Macal.
**Escaping the accidents of history: an overview of artificial life modeling with Repast**. 2005 - • Andrew Ilachinski.
**EINSTein: a multiagent-based model of combat**. 2005 - • Andrew Begel, Eric Klopfer.
**StarLogo: a programmable complex systems modeling environment for students and teachers**. 2005 - • Jon McCormack.
**On the evolution of sonic ecosystems**. 2005 - • Mirek Wojtowicz.
**Exploring cellular automata with Mcell**. 2005 - • Andrew Wuensche.
**Discrete Dynamics Lab: tools for investigating cellular automata and discrete dynamical networks**. 2005 - • Tatsuo Unemi.
**Simulated Breeding --- a framework of breeding artifacts on the computer**. 2005 - • Alan Dorin.
**Enriching aesthetics with artificial life**. 2005

- • Kazuhito Yamada, Tetsuya Asai, Ikuko N. Motoike, Yoshihito Amemiya.
**On digital VLSI circuits exploiting colision-based fusion gates**. 2006 - • Adam Budd, Christopher Stone, Jonathan Masere, Andrew Adamatzky, Ben De Lacy Costello, Lawrence Bull.
**Towards machine learning control of chemical computers**. 2006 - • Nicholas Glade.
**Existence and persistence of microtubule chemical trails---a step toward microtubule collision-based computing**. 2006 - • John Greenman, Ioannis Ieropoulus, Chris R. Melhuish.
**Perfusion anodophile biofilm electrodes and their potential for computing**. 2006 - • Niall Murphy, Thomas J. Naughton, Damien Woods, Beverley Henley, Kieran McDermott, Elaine Duffy, Peter J. M. van der Burgt, Niamh Woods.
**Implementations of a model of physical sorting**. 2006 - • Selim G. Akl.
**Conventional or unconventional: Is any computer universal?**. 2006 - • Karoline Wiesner, James P. Crutchfield.
**Language diversity of measured quantum processes**. 2006 - • William M. Stevens.
**Logic Circuits in a system of repelling particles**. 2006 - • Alexis De Vos, Yvan Van Rentergem.
**From group theory to reversible computers**. 2006

- • Matthias Bechmann, John A. Clark, Angelika Sebald, Susan Stepney.
**Unentangling nuclear magnetic resonance computing**. 2007 - • Simon O'Keefe.
**Implementation of logical operations on a domino substrate**. 2007 - • William M. Stevens.
**A kinematic Turing machine**. 2007 - • Effirul I. Ramlan, Klaus-Peter Zauner.
**Nucleic acid enzymes: The fusion of self-assembly and conformational computing**. 2007 - • Ed Blakey.
**On the computational complexity of physical computing systems .**. 2007 - • Navneet Bhalla, Peter J. Bentley, Christian Jacob.
**Mapping virtual self-assembly rules to physical systems**. 2007 - • Willem Fouche, Johannes Heidema, Glyn Jones, Petrus H. Potgieter.
**Halting in quantum Turing computation**. 2007 - • Kohta Suzuki, Satoshi Murata.
**Design of DNA spike oscillator**. 2007 - • Kaoru Onodera.
**The computing power of structured molecules with gaps: Watson-Crick insertion systems**. 2007 - • Mike Stannett.
**Physical hypercomputation**. 2007 - • Jeff Jones, Mohammed Saeed.
**Collective perception of absolute brightness from relative contrast information -- an emergent pattern formation approach**. 2007 - • Masayuki Ikebe, Yusuke Kitauchi.
**Evaluation of a multi-path maze-solving cellular automata by using a virtual slime-mold model**. 2007 - • Takashi Morie, Takahiro Yamamoto.
**A cellular-automaton-based anisotropic diffusion algorithm for subjective contour generation and its digital VLSI implementation**. 2007 - • Xin-She Yang, Young Z. L. Yang.
**Cellular automata networks**. 2007 - • Eugene S. Kitamura, Yukio-Pegio Gunji.
**Wholeness based on gluing of incomplete information**. 2007

- • Carter Bays.
**Introduction to cellular automata and Conway's Game of Life**. 2010 - • Robert Wainwright.
**Conway's Game of Life: early personal recollections**. 2010 - • Harold V. McIntosh.
**Conway's Life**. 2010 - • Harold V. McIntosh.
**Life's still lifes**. 2010 - • Harold V. McIntosh.
**A zoo of Life forms**. 2010 - • David Eppstein.
**Growth and decay in Life-like cellular automata**. 2010 - • Nathaniel Johnston.
**The B36/S125 "2x2" Life-like cellular automata**. 2010 - • Mark D. Niemiec.
**Object synthesis in Conway's Game of Life and other cellular automata**. 2010 - • Emmanuel Sapin.
**Gliders and glider guns discovery in cellular automata**. 2010 - • Geoffrey Chu, Karen Elizabeth Petrie, Neil Yorke-Smith.
**Constraint programming to solve maximal density still life**. 2010 - • Kellie Michele Evans.
**Larger than Life's extremes: rigorous results for simplified rules and speculation on the phase boundaries**. 2010 - • Marcus Pivato.
**RealLife**. 2010 - • Ferdinand Peper, Susumu Adachi, Jia Lee.
**Variations on the Game of Life**. 2010 - • Nazim Fates.
**Does Life resist asynchrony?**. 2010 - • Ramon Alonso-Sanz.
**Life with short-term memory**. 2010 - • Genaro Juarez Martinez, Andrew Adamatzky, Harold V. McIntosh.
**Localization dynamics in a binary two-dimensional cellular automaton: the diffusion rule**. 2010 - • Carter Bays.
**The Game of Life in non-square environments**. 2010 - • Nick D. L. Owens, Susan Stepney.
**The Game of Life rules on Penrose tilings: still life and oscillators**. 2010 - • Jeffrey Ventrella.
**A spherical XOR gate implemented in the Game of Life**. 2010 - • Nicholas Mark Gotts.
**Emergent complexity in Conway's Game of Life**. 2010 - • A. R. Hernandez-Montoya, H. F. Coronel-Brizio, M. E. Rodriguez-Achach.
**Macroscopic spatial complexity of the Game of Life cellular automaton: a simple data analysis**. 2010 - • Claudio Conti.
**The enlightened Game of Life**. 2010 - • Adrian P. Flitney, Derek Abbott.
**Towards a quantum Game of Life**. 2010 - • Eduardo Reck Miranda, Alexis Kirke.
**Game of Life music**. 2010 - • Adam P. Goucher.
**Universal computation and construction in GoL cellular automata**. 2010 - • Paul Rendell.
**A simple Universal Turing Machine for the Game of Life Turing Machine**. 2010 - • Genaro Juarez Martinez, Andrew Adamatzky, Kenichi Morita, Maurice Margenstern.
**Computation with competing patterns in Life-like automata**. 2010

The art works are the outcomes of scientific experiments
that aimed to design computing devices made from slime mould.
Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single-cell organism visible by the unaided eye.
The slime mould computes by optimising its shape, electrical activity
or location in response to stimulations.
This fascinating mix of art and science offers an awe-inspiring
look at the ways in which slime mould explores its environment and performs computation.
Art works allow us to see the world through the "eyes" of the slime mould
and show that the absence of a brain does not exclude an amorphous living creature from intelligence.

This fascinating, colourful book offers in-depth insights and first-hand
working experiences in the production of art works,
using simple computational models with rich morphological behaviour,
at the edge of mathematics, computer science, physics and biology.
It organically combines ground breaking scientific discoveries
in the theory of computation and complex systems
with artistic representations of the research results.
In this appealing book mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists,
and engineers brought together marvelous and esoteric patterns generated
by cellular automata, which are arrays of simple machines with complex behavior.
Configurations produced by cellular automata uncover mechanics of
dynamic patterns formation, their propagation and interaction in natural systems:
heart pacemaker, bacterial membrane proteins, chemical rectors,
water permeation in soil, compressed gas, cell division, population dynamics,
reaction-diffusion media and self-organisation.

The unconventional computing is a niche for interdisciplinary science, cross-bred of
computer science, physics, mathematics, chemistry, electronic engineering, biology,
material science and nanotechnology. The aims of this book are to uncover and exploit
principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of
physical, chemical and living systems to develop efficient algorithms, design optimal
architectures and manufacture working prototypes of future and emergent computing
devices.

This first volume presents theoretical foundations of the future and emergent computing paradigms and architectures. The topics covered are computability, (non-)universality and complexity of computation; physics of computation, analog and quantum computing; reversible and asynchronous devices; cellular automata and other mathematical machines; P-systems and cellular computing; infinity and spatial computation; chemical and reservoir computing.

The book is the encyclopedia, the first ever complete authoritative account, of the theoretical and experimental findings in the unconventional computing written by the world leaders in the field. All chapters are self-contains, no specialist background is required to appreciate ideas, findings, constructs and designs presented. This treatise in unconventional computing appeals to readers from all walks of life, from high-school pupils to university professors, from mathematicians, computers scientists and engineers to chemists and biologists.

The unconventional computing is a niche for interdisciplinary science, cross-bred of
computer science, physics, mathematics, chemistry, electronic engineering, biology,
material science and nanotechnology. The aims of this book are to uncover and exploit
principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of
physical, chemical and living systems to develop efficient algorithms, design optimal
architectures and manufacture working prototypes of future and emergent computing
devices.

This second volume presents experimental laboratory prototypes and applied computing implementations. Emergent molecular computing is presented by enzymatic logical gates and circuits, and DNA nano-devices. Reaction-diffusion chemical computing is exemplified by logical circuits in Belousov-Zhabotinsky medium and geometrical computation in precipitating chemical reactions. Logical circuits realised with solitons and impulses in polymer chains show advances in collision-based computing. Photo-chemical and memristive devices give us a glimpse on hot topics of a novel hardware. Practical computing is represented by algorithms of collective and immune-computing and nature-inspired optimisation. Living computing devices are implemented in real and simulated cells, regenerating organisms, plant roots and slime mould.

The book is the encyclopedia, the first ever complete authoritative account, of the theoretical and experimental findings in the unconventional computing written by the world leaders in the field. All chapters are self-contains, no specialist background is required to appreciate ideas, findings, constructs and designs presented. This treatise in unconventional computing appeals to readers from all walks of life, from high-school pupils to university professors, from mathematicians, computers scientists and engineers to chemists and biologists.

This book is a tribute to Julian Francis Miller’s ideas and achievements in computer
science, evolutionary algorithms and genetic programming, electronics, unconventional
computing, artificial chemistry and theoretical biology. Leading international experts
in computing inspired by nature offer their insights into the principles of information
processing and optimisation in simulated and experimental living, physical and
chemical substrates. Miller invented Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) in 1999,
from a representation of electronic circuits he devised with Thomson a few years earlier.
The book presents a number of CGP’s wide applications, including multi-step ahead
forecasting, solving artificial neural networks dogma, approximate computing, medical
informatics, control engineering, evolvable hardware, and multi-objective evolutionary
optimisations. The book addresses in depth the technique of ‘Evolution in Materio’,
a term coined by Miller and Downing, using a range of examples of experimental
prototypes of computing in disordered ensembles of graphene nanotubes, slime
mould, plants, and reaction diffusion chemical systems. Advances in sub-symbolic
artificial chemistries, artificial bio-inspired development, code evolution with genetic
programming, and using Reed-Muller expansions in the synthesis of Boolean quantum
circuits add a unique flavour to the content. The book is a pleasure to explore for
readers from all walks of life, from undergraduate students to university professors,
from mathematicians, computer scientists and engineers to chemists and biologists.