Contrary to what so many Americans learn in school, Columbus did not land in a sparsely settled, near-pristine wilderness. Recent research has shown that Indians arrived millennia earlier than previously thought and shaped the lands around them in ways we are only now beginning to understand. The astonishing Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán had running water and immaculately clean streets, and was larger than any contemporary European city. Native cultures created corn in a specialized breeding process that it has been called man’s first feat of genetic engineering. Perhaps most surprising, many researchers believe that past Indian cultures created much of today’s Amazon forst. This is a transformative new look at a rich and fascinating world we only thought we knew.